Assistive technology, sometimes known as Adaptive Technology, includes devices or equipment used to maintain, increase or improve the abilities of individuals with disabilities. It is important to realize that assistive technology is NOT only computer programs or electronic devices. Since many people think of computers when thinking of technology, this is a common mistake. Assistive technology doesn’t have to be high-tech, but it should serve the purpose of “assistance” and can include anything from a stick one uses to reach for something to a walker or a wheelchair, or more complex items such as environmental controls or adapted vehicles.
This means that assistive technology has existed since the first homo sapiens picked up a branch to help himself over rough terrain. Sophisticated forms of assistive technology date back for centuries as well, as the 6th century saw an image of a wheelchair being carved in stone on a Chinese sarcophagus. Today, assistive technology is available to support many common disabilities. For example assistive technology may:
o Provide help with communication, such as speech, writing and typing aids
o Help people with difficulty accessing a computer with the standard keyboard and mouse. They include software programs such as a screen reader or on-screen keyboard and hardware, such as a head operated mouse.
o Provide exercises that stimulate train and assess cognitive functioning.
o Assist with daily living such as cooking, dressing, toileting, bathing, eating
o Provide assistance with hearing or visual limitations such as flashing light system for the doorbell, hearing aids and closed caption decoders for TV.
o Provide assistance with mobility such as wheelchairs, walkers and canes.
o Help with missing or disabled limbs such as artificial limbs, braces, supports
o Allow disabled individuals to take part in sporting or leisure activities.
o Support the muscular-skeletal systems and maintain positions needed to perform desired activities, such as moulded seats, lumbar supports, and modifications to wheelchairs would fall into this category.
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